FROM AWARD-WINNING AUTHOR DR GOVIND SHUKLA, NUTRITION EXPERT


Govind Shukla, Specializes in Pharmacology, Toxicology, Nutraceuticals & Herbal Drugs has published More than 100 research papers in National & International Journals. He is also a reviewer of International Journal of Pharmacology & pharmacotherapeutics, Chief editor of IJPNR Journal & Freelance Medical Writer for Different publication Groups including Lambert Academic Publishing Saarbrucken, Germany.

MORINGA LITE veg caps Nature’s blend of Antioxidant Nutrients to maintain optimum health & wellbeing

Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to anoxidizing agentOxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions.

 An antioxidant is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules

Antioxidants terminate the chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions. They do this by being oxidized themselves, so antioxidants are often called as reducing agents such as thiols, ascorbic acid or polyphenols.

Antioxidants are widely used as ingredients in dietary supplements and have been investigated for the prevention of diseases such as cancer,coronary heart disease and even altitude sickness.

Antioxidants are our first line of defense against free radical damage, and are critical for maintaining optimum health and wellbeing.The need for antioxidants becomes even more critical with increased exposure to free radicals. Pollution, cigarette smoke, drugs, illness, stress, and even exercise can increase free radical exposure. Because so many factors can contribute to oxidative stress, individual assessment of susceptibility becomes important. Many experts believe that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for specific antioxidants may be inadequate and, in some instances, the need may be several times the RDA. As part of a healthy lifestyle and a well-balanced, wholesome diet, antioxidant supplementation is now being recognized as an important means of improving free radical protection. Damage to cells caused by free radicals is believed to play a central role in the aging process and in disease progression. MORINGA LITE veg caps, Nature’s blend of Antioxidant Nutrients in maintaining optimum health & well being.

To protect the cells and organ systems of the body against reactive oxygen species, humans have evolved a highly sophisticated and complex antioxidant protection system. It involves a variety of components, both endogenous and exogenous in origin, that function interactively and synergistically to neutralize free radicals.

These components include:

• Nutrient-derived antioxidants like ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherols and tocotrienols (vitamin E), carotenoids, and other low molecular weight compounds such as glutathione and lipoic acid.

• Antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, which catalyze free radical quenching reactions.

• Metal binding proteins, such as ferritin, lactoferrin, albumin, and ceruloplasmin that sequester free iron and copper ions that are capable of catalyzing oxidative reactions. • Numerous other antioxidant phytonutrients present in a wide variety of plant foods

NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS IN BODY
 
VARIOUS ROS AND CORRESPONDING NEUTRALIZINGANTIOXIDANTS
 
ROS                              NEUTRALIZINGANTIOXIDANTS
Hydroxyl radical            Vitamin C, glutathione,
                                       flavonoids, lipoic acid
Superoxide radical         Vitamin C, glutathione,
                                       flavonoids, SOD
Hydrogen peroxide        Vitamin C, glutathione, beta
                                       carotene, vitamin E, CoQ10,
                                       flavonoids, lipoic acid
Lipid peroxides              Beta carotene, vitamin E,
                                       ubiquinone, flavonoids,
                                       glutathione peroxidase

DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS

Vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene are among the most widely studied dietary antioxidants. Vitamin C is considered the most important water-soluble antioxidant in extracellular fluids. It is capable of neutralizing ROS in the aqueous phase before lipid peroxidation is initiated. Vitamin E, a major lipid-soluble antioxidant, is the most effective chain-breakingantioxidant within the cell membrane where it protects membrane fatty acids from lipid peroxidation. Vitamin C has been cited as being capable of regenerating vitamin E.

Beta carotene and other carotenoids are also believed to provide antioxidant protection to lipid-rich tissues. Research suggests beta carotene may work synergistically with vitamin E.

 A diet that is excessively low in fat may negatively affect beta carotene and vitamin E absorption, as well as other fat-soluble nutrients. Fruits and vegetables are major sources of vitamin C and carotenoids, while whole grains and high quality, properly extracted and protected vegetable oils are major sources of vitamin E.

PHYTONUTRIENTS

A number of other dietary antioxidant substances exist beyond the traditional vitamins discussed above. Many plant-derived substances, collectively termed “phytonutrients,” or “phytochemicals,” are becoming increasingly known for their antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids are ubiquitous within the plant kingdom: approximately 3,000 flavonoid substances have been described in Natural Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease. ed. Frei, B. Academic Press: San Diego, 1994.

 In plants, flavonoids serve as protectors against a wide variety of environmental stresses while, in humans, flavonoids appear to function as “biological response modifiers.”

Flavonoids have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, antiallergenic, anti-viral, anti-aging, and anti-carcinogenic activity.

The broad therapeutic effects of flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. In addition to an antioxidant effect, flavonoid compounds may exert protection against heart disease through the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities in platelets and macrophages.

ENDOGENOUS ANTIOXIDANTS

In addition to dietary antioxidants, the body relies on several endogenous defense mechanisms to help protect against free radical-induced cell damage. The antioxidant enzymes – glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) – metabolize oxidative toxic intermediates and require micronutrient cofactors such as selenium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese for optimum catalytic activity. It has been suggested that an inadequate dietary intake of these trace minerals may compromise the effectiveness of these antioxidant defense mechanisms.Research indicates that consumption and absorption of these important trace minerals may decrease with aging .Intensive agricultural methods have also resulted in significant depletion of these valuable trace minerals in our soils and the foods grown in them. Glutathione, an important water-soluble antioxidant, is synthesized from the amino acids glycine, glutamate, and cysteine. Glutathione directly quenches ROS such as lipid peroxides, and also plays a major role in xenobiotic metabolism. Exposure of the liver to xenobiotic substances induces oxidative reactions through the upregulation of detoxification enzymes, i.e., cytochrome P-450 mixed-function oxidase. When an individual is exposed to high levels of xenobiotics, more glutathione is utilized for conjugation (a key step in the body’s detoxification process) making it less available to serve as an antioxidant. Research suggests that glutathione and vitamin C work interactively to quench free radicals and that they have a sparing effect upon each other. Lipoic acid, yet another important endogenous antioxidant, categorized as a “thiol” or “biothiol,” is a sulfur-containing molecule that is known for its involvement in the reaction that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-keto acids, such as pyruvate and alphaketoglutarate,in the Krebs cycle. Lipoic acid and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), are capable of quenching free radicals in both lipid and aqueous domains and as such has been called a “universal antioxidant.” Lipoic acid may also exert its antioxidant effect by chelating with pro-oxidant metals. Research further suggests that lipoic acid has a sparing effect on other antioxidants. Animal studies have demonstrated supplemental lipoic acid to protect against the symptoms of vitamin E or vitamin C deficiency.

Additional physiological antioxidants are listed in Table II.

ANTANTIOXIDANT PROTECTION SYSTEM

Endogenous Antioxidants

• Bilirubin

• Thiols, e.g., glutathione, lipoic acid, N-acetyl cysteine

• NADPH and NADH

• Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10)

• Uric acid

• Enzymes:

– copper/zinc and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD)

– iron-dependent catalase

– selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase

Dietary Antioxidants

• Vitamin C

• Vitamin E

• Beta carotene and other carotenoids and oxycarotenoids,

e.g., lycopene and lutein

• Polyphenols, e.g., flavonoids, flavones, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins

Metal Binding Proteins

• Albumin (copper)

• Ceruloplasmin (copper)

• Metallothionein (copper)

• Ferritin (iron)

• Myoglobin (iron)

• Transferrin (iron)

OXIDATIVE STRESS As remarkable as our antioxidant defense system is, it may not always be adequate. The term “oxidative stress” has been coined to represent a shift towards the pro-oxidants in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance that can occur as a result of an increase in oxidative metabolism. Increased oxidative stress at the cellular level can come about as a consequence of many factors, including exposure to alcohol, medications, trauma, cold, infections, poor diet, toxins, radiation, or strenuous physical activity. Protection against all of these processes is dependent upon the adequacy of various antioxidant substances that are derived either directly or indirectly from the diet. Consequently, an inadequate intake of antioxidant nutrients may compromise antioxidant potential, thus compounding overall oxidative stress.

FREE  RADICAL DAMAGE TO BODY,CELL & DNA
 
OXIDATIVE STRESS AND HUMAN DISEASE
Oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and other macromolecules has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases, most notably heart disease and cancer.
A growing body of animal and epidemiological studies as well as clinical intervention trials suggest that antioxidants may play a pivotal role in preventing or slowing the progression of both heart disease and some forms of cancer.
 
 CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH OXIDATIVE DAMAGE
• Atherosclerosis
• Cancer
• Pulmonary dysfunction
• Cataracts
• Arthritis and inflammatory diseases
• Diabetes
• Shock, trauma, and ischemia
• Renal disease and hemodialysis
• Multiple sclerosis
• Pancreatitis
• Inflammatory bowel disease and colitis
• Parkinson’s disease
• Neonatal lipoprotein oxidation
• Drug reactions
• Skin lesion & Aging

HOW DO ANTIOXIDANTS OPERATE

Composition

Pharmacological Action of each ingredients

Presentation: Veg caps

Usage:

Contra-indications: Product is contra-indicated in persons with Known hypersensitivity to any component of the product hypersensitivity to any component of the product.

Recommended usage : Adults: .1-2  Veg caps  twice a day with water or Milk or liquid of choice twice daily

“Do not exceed the recommended daily dose”

Administration: Taken by oral route at anytime with food.

Precautions: Do not exceed the recommended daily dose.

Warnings: If you are taking any prescribed medication or has any medical conditions always consults doctor or healthcare practitioner before taking this supplement.

Side Effects: VeryMild side effects like nausea, headache and vomiting in some individuals  may be observed.Storage: Store in a cool, dry and dark place.

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