Astaxanthin (ASTX): A Natural Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory for Maintaining Lung Health and Possibly minimizing SARS-CoV-2 Effects.


The recent emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 viral pandemic has underscored the importance of maintaining pulmonary health as well as the need to minimize SARS-CoV-2 induced chronic inflammation and the resulting pathologic levels of inflammatory cytokines. SARS-CoV-2 infection results in COVID-19 syndrome that includes coughing, sneezing, fever, pneumonia, and potentially death. Current treatments for viral infection and the ensuing chronic inflammation include anti-viral medications as well as steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDS); however, safety and efficacy limitations restrict anti-inflammatory treatment regimens for many patients. Coronaviruses have been shown to induce lung damage by increasing inflammatory signaling pathways and cytokine production leading to elevated immune cell infiltration and macrophagic polarization shifts (M2 to M1). Astaxanthin (ASTX), a safe, orally bioavailable, naturally occurring molecule with strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, has been shown to (i) significantly attenuate pathological elevation of critical inflammatory cell signaling pathways (NF-kB), (ii) decrease the resulting elevated proinflammatory cytokine levels, (iii) reduce immune cell infiltration of the lung, and (iv) positively influence macrophage polarization in humans and animal models of disease.



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Govind Shukla, Specializes in Pharmacology, Toxicology, Nutraceuticals & Herbal Drugs has published More than 100 research papers in National & International Journals. He is also a reviewer of International Journal of Pharmacology & pharmacotherapeutics, Chief editor of IJPNR Journal & Freelance Medical Writer for Different publication Groups including Lambert Academic Publishing Saarbrucken, Germany.

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