Is Good Hygiene Enough To Protect You In A Flu Pandemic?
As we enter the unfamiliar state of a global flu pandemic, communication between professionals and the public needs to be honest and candid. This means that you will need to expect bad news, confusing changes in policy and conflicting opinions and information over the coming months.
How much preparedness is reasonable? What are the consequences of non-preparedness and do we need to review our opinions each week? Currently good hygiene practice, whilst not a panacea, is under your
Control, and has no downside. It is promoted as a key prevention strategy, combined with avoiding contact
With infectious people.
The summer has brought a period of modest transmission and a slowly developing consensus that the virus is unlikely to be more ‘virulent’ than a normal seasonal flu, is estimated to cause 24,000 deaths annually, a number far likely to be exceeded during a pandemic. Prevention is a practicable and sensible route to take, as treatment options are currently limited to anti-viral and the health and stability of the immune system of the infected person. IMMUNIZE capsules are designed to equip you with a scientifically based pro-active nutritional support to help reduce your risk of viral infection.
What Are The Dynamics Of Transmission?
There are three types of Flu Virus, Type A, B, C. A & B are the most common. Only genes from the same type can rearrange to make a different form of virus (i.e. A plus A or B plus B). Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the virus strain “severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread globally, resulting in the 2019–20 corona virus pandemic. The infection is typically spread from one person to another via respiratory droplets produced during coughing and sneezing. As is common with infections, there is a delay from when a person is infected with the virus to when they develop symptoms, known as the incubation period. The incubation period for COVID-19 is typically five to six days but may range from two to fourteen days.
The respiratory tract is the most common route of viral entry, a consequence of the exposed mucosal surface and the resting ventilation rate of 6 liters of air per minute. The huge absorptive area of the human lung (140 square meters) also plays a role. Large numbers of foreign particles and personalized droplets –often containing visions (from the Latin virus meaning toxin or poison – a sub-microscopic infectious –agent that is unable to grow or reproduce outside a host) – are introduced into the respiratory tract each minute. The other route of transmission is from physical contact through the hands, and then touching the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose.
Young children and COVID-19
Little is currently known about how this new S-OIV circulating in people may affect children. However, it is known from seasonal influenza and past pandemics that young children, especially those younger than 5 years of age and children who have high risk medical conditions, are at increased risk of influenza-related complications.
What Are Our Natural Defences?
There are two fundamental characteristics of human resistance to viral infections. Both are interrelated. The first involves resistance or relative susceptibility of the population to the virus, and the second concerns the type of immune response offered by the individual.
In terms of resistance, the reason why we are not more frequently infected is that there are numerous defence mechanisms to protect the respiratory tract.
Mucosal health perspective
For example, the respiratory tract is lined with a mucociliary blanket comprising ciliated cells, mucus-secreting goblet cells, and sub epithelial mucus-secreting glands. Foreign particles that enter the nasal cavity or upper respiratory tract are trapped in mucus and carried to the back of the throat, where they are swallowed or spat out. In terms of immune response, if particles reach the lower respiratory tract, they may also be trapped in mucus, which is then brought up and out of the lungs by ciliary action. The lowest reaches of the respiratory tract – the alveoli – are devoid of cilia. However, these gas-exchanging sacs are endowed with macrophages, whose job it is to ingest and destroy particles. Our secretory IgA (sIgA) provides the first line of immune defence at the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary
tracts, where more than 95% of infections are initiated.
SIgA functions at three anatomical levels in relation to mucosal epithelium:
- SIgA antibodies prevent adhesion and entry of antigens into epithelium tissues.2
- SIgA antibodies in the lamina propria bind and excrete bacteria and viruses to the lumen.3
- SIgA antibodies in transit through the epithelium can inhibit virus production4or neutralize proinflammatory antigens.5,6 A protective effect of SIgA against respiratory and gastrointestinal viral infections is an important part of prevention.7
Because influenza virus infection is essentially an attack
on a superficial extra vascular tissue, the ability of antibodies to prevent injury to the involved respiratory epithelium is believed to result primarily from the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) generated by the local epithelium. By neutralizing the virus at the portal of entry before replication, infection, and dissemination can occur, mucosal immunity could confer better protection against influenza than serum antibodies, the method developed for vaccination.
Our innate immune response to the influenza virus is well understood, relying on the supportive action of innate and adaptive immune responses to manage a controlled eradication of the virus rather than the potentially fatal cytokine storm that can occur.
Innate and Adaptive Immunity
The adaptive immune response depends on B and T lymphocytes which are specific for particular antigens. This system involves clonal selection of antibody producing B cells to respond to foreign antigens, and works well, but has a major limitation in that it takes from 4 to 7 days to ramp up. In that time period, pathogens could overwhelm the organism.
In contrast, the innate immune system is immediately available to combat threats. There is no complicated method of selecting cells that react to foreign substances from those that react to self. There is no memory (except in some specialized NK cells) to change how the system responds to the same threat upon the second or third exposure. Instead, the innate Immune system responds to common structures shared by a vast majority of threats.
Immunize contains Colostrum, Saccharomyces boulardii & Vitamin D
Figure : The 3 Sentinal Cells, Dendritic, Mast, & Macrophages Protect Against Pathogens. Dendritic Cells Also Are Critical in the Adaptive Immune Response
An organism’s survival depends on a prompt response to pathogens, but it is equally important to avoid unregulated inflammation that can lead to dangerous pathologies such as sepsis and autoimmune disease. It is this fine balance between protection and self- damage that drives the complexity of the innate immune response.
Innate immunity is recognized to play an important role in the response to challenge by pathogens.
The immune functions in which toll-like receptors play important roles include:
- Orchestration of the immediate tissue specific and global response of the innate immune system to pathogens. This orchestration is driven primarily by cytokine and chemokine production (TNF, Interferons, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 among others). Perhaps the most important of these early signals are the chemokines that draw the phagocytes to the site of infection.
- Transition from innate to adaptive immunity. In addition to the role in the innate immune response, TLRs have an important role in adaptive immunity by activating antigen presenting cells.
Helps To Support Immune System
The cytokine signaling cascade, stimulated by TLR activation, begins a complex series of interactions that has evolved in each organism to maximize the odds for survival. Among the more important of these signals is T cell differentiation and regulation. TLRs, on dendritic cells in particular, are essential in the T-helper-1 (Th1) versus Th2 pathways. Equally important is the maturation of Treg cells to manage inflammatory responses. An important early component of the Th1 response is the activation of cytotoxic T cells that helps to control the infection.
Nutritional Supplementation To Optimize Natural killer cell activity
Saccharomyces boulardii in IMMUIZE TM for SlgA Optimization
1. Saccharomyces Boulardii increases sIgA production. This is an effective inhibitor of viral invasion and sIgA may be suppressed when there are changes to the intestinal ecology and/or anxiety is increased. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae is the yeast species from which Saccharomyces Boulardii is derived. The chemical extraction of the active component ‘Beta Glucans’ from this yeast results in the exclusion of the beneficial element that stimulates the local production of sIgA. This has the counterproductive effect of potentially over stimulating the TLR’s and pro- inflammatory cytokines producing an increase in risk, rather than a decrease. Until more is known about the COVID-19 viral–immune response the use of a cautious but evidence based strategy is recommended
2. Try to maintain adequate SIgA levels. These can be measured using a salivary test. The use of Saccharomyces Boulardii has been shown in animal and human studies to be an effective promoter of SIgA.8 . It also reduces epithelial Permeability and limits the cytokine cascade, reducing the symptoms of an over enthusiastic defence.9
3.There by improving immune tolerance, as well as restricting viral and pathogen adhesion and penetration.
Vitamin D in IMMUIZE optimization
Activated vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, a steroid hormone, has profound effects on human immunity including the prevention of influenza.11 1,25(OH)2D acts as an immune system modulator, preventing excessive expression of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the ‘oxidation burst’ potential of macrophages. It dramatically stimulates the expression of potent anti-microbial peptides called cathelicidins, which exist in neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, and in epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract where they play a major role in protecting the lung from infection.12 Vitamin D appears to both enhance the local capacity of the epithelium to produce endogenous antibiotics and
- at the same time – dampen certain arms of the adaptive immune response, especially those responsible for the signs and symptoms of acute inflammation, such as the cytokine storms, operative when influenza kills quickly.13
COLOSTRUMin IMMU IZE TM
Colostrum is pre-milk substance that is produced immediately after birth. Within few minutes of birth, baby can suckle the breast. Colostrum is thick lemon yellow mammary secretion and is rich in proteins. This lasts for 2-4 days after the lactation has started. This is the source of fats, proteins, sugars and micronutrients in the form of vitamins and minerals. This is very rich source of secretory IgA to give protection to gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from various infections in the new born. Certain maternal conditions like eclampsia, diabetes and anemia can affect the composition of colostrum.14
IMMU IZE TM combines colostrum, Life’s First Food’, saccharomyces boulardii & vitamin D to provide a new level of options helping to support immune system.
Immune Support with COLOSTRUM
The newborn for whom the colostrum is intended needs protection from the environment it has just entered, and it needs it immediately if it is to survive. Therefore colostrum, whether it is from a cow or a human, is loaded with everything the newborn needs to survive in the hostile world. Cows, unlike humans, are unable to receive immunoglobulins across the placenta to “prime” the immune system before birth, so they need a massive dose of immunoglobulins immediately after birth. Bovine colostrum thus contains much more Immunoglobulin G (IgG) than human colostrum, which contains predominantly Immunoglobulin A (IgA).
IgG provides passive systemic immunity whereas IgA provides more localized immunity. Bovine colostrum is able to impart passive immunity not only to calves but to humans as well against a broad spectrum of pathogens as well as nonspecific immune support against all pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoan parasites. Colostrum also has the unique ability to modulate the immune system through the activity of PRP, a protein found only in colostrum, which can heat up or cool down the immune system depending upon what is needed by the host. most of benefits from colostrum & its other constituents.
- Colostrum provides passive immunity against bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoan parasites15-28
- Lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme are non-specific bactericidal, virucidal and fungicidal components of colostrum29-34
- Lactoferrin and lysozyme have been shown to act in concert with lactoferrin first binding to and removing the lipopolysaccharide protective coating of gram-negative bacteria (such as Vibrio cholerae (cholera), Salmonella typhimurium (food poisoning) and Escherichia coli), allowing lysozyme to enter the bacterial cell, causing lysis35
- Lactoferrin is effective against HIV and Human Cytomegalovirus36,37
- Colostrum alleviates Cryptosporidosis, a life- threatening diarrhea which occurs as a secondary infection in AIDS39-40
- Colostrum contains complement factors and oligosaccharides which also provide non- specific antimicrobial protection41,42
• Colostrum contains Proline-Rich-Polypeptide, a unique immunomodulatory peptide which causes the differentiation of thymocytes into active T cells and stimulates the differentiation of B cells and can also act to tone down on overactive immune system, such as is found in autoimmune diseases43,44
• also stimulates the production of interferon- beta (IFN β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by peritoneal cells45
• Oral administration of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) from colostrum causes a marked increase in the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating that colostrum stimulates the immune system46
· Cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6) and interferon (IFNγ) in colostrum, stimulate the developing immune system in infants as well as the depressed immune system of aged individuals47
· Colostrum stimulates the formation of cytokines, interleukins 1, 3 and 6 (IL-1, IL-3, IL-6), by blood leukocytes48
· Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), both found in colostrum, modulate the activity of monocytes and macrophages in organizing immune responses to pathogens, either turning them on or off depending on what is needed49
Lactoferrin from colostrum increase both motility and superoxide production by polymorph nuclear leukocytes (white blood cells), apparently making them more effective in warding off infections50
Colostrum can modulate natural killer cell activity by stimulating or inhibiting production of interleukin-2 (IL-2)51Anti-Inflammatory
Colostrum Supplementation- Clinical Substantiation
The efficacy of a 2-month treatment with oral colostrum in the prevention of flu episodes compared with anti-influenza vaccination was evaluated. Groups included healthy subjects without prophylaxis and those receiving both vaccination and colostrum. After 3 months of follow-up, the number of days with flu was 3 times higher in the non-colostrum subjects. The colostrum group had 13 episodes versus 14 in the colostrum + vaccination group, 41 in the group without prophylaxis, and 57 in non-treated subjects. Part 2 of the study had a similar protocol with 65 very high-risk cardiovascular subjects, all of whom had prophylaxis. The incidence of complications and hospital admission was higher in the group that received only a vaccination compared with the colostrum groups. Colostrum, both in healthy subjects and high- risk cardiovascular patients, is at least 3 times more effective than vaccination to prevent flu and is very cost-effective.14In many instances, flu starts from the intestinal tract, and protection in situ may be one of the advantages given by colostrum
– Clin.App.Thromb Hemost.2007;Apr:13(2)130-6
Vaccinations vs IMMUIZE TM
Vaccinations have generally produced a striking improvement in public health, reducing mortality
And morbidity through an improvement in specific immunity, by increasing awareness, and very often, just by a generic stimulation of immunity. However, variation in virulence, antigenic characteristics, and in protein content of several viruses, reflecting their adaptation to changing situations, make the results of flu vaccination quite unpredictable.
Several objections to the routine use of vaccination have been raised in the trials. Many subjects in the trials seem to have a limited benefit from vaccination, which is active in developing immunity, particularly in young subjects because their immune response is very effective. In elderly subjects, the immune response seems to be very limited, and therefore, vaccination in these subjects seems to have a minor effect and benefit.52 There is also the problem of the type of virus used for prevention, which may be different from the one that actually causes disease in specific areas, populations, and times.53,54,55 The use of vaccination with severe immunologic and inflammatory disorders56 can be also questioned because most vaccines may not be safe, including those individuals with rheumatoid arthritis; concerns have also been raised about flu vaccination in pregnancy.57
The efficacy y of flu vaccination and i ts cost-effectiveness is probably questionable because of the possible presence of unknown and
Known side effects 58.59
A relation between the
incidence of intussusception associated with the first dose of vaccine in infants was recently shown.60 It is theoretically possible that long-term effects may result from elements present in the vaccination material that are presently unknown, such as unknown viral fractions. Even though flu vaccination has the lowest incidence of side effects compared with other types of vaccination,58 complications may occur at a variable distance in time from the vaccination; therefore, it is difficult to define and evaluate them carefully.
The use of IMMU IZE,TM on the contrary, is practically free of side effects. Furthermore, the dosage used in this study is very low, corresponding to 400 mg of colostrum, 1mn sacchromyces boulardii & 150 IU vitamin D.
contains 400mg Colostrum with 22.5% Immunoglobulins
Chronic diarrhea in HIV infection,61,62 diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection in children,63 and upper respiratory infection in adults,64 have been treated successfully with a high concentration of purified immunoglobulins from colostrum, which is necessary once an infection has already taken place. For prophylaxis, however, a lower concentration of a multinutrient large-spectrum product such as IMMU IZE TM can be sufficient.
A very low concentration of insulin-like growth
factor I,65 lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase66 can be sufficient to determine protection as a nonspecific defense, and similarly, complement factors25 and oligosaccharides 67,68can increase the body’s capability to produce passive immunity. A low concentration
of colostrum has been found to increase the oxidative burst of leukocytes,69 and also low concentrations of transforming growth factor-b1, such as that present in colostrum, were able to reduce the gastric damage induced by indomethacin.70,71
Colostrums containing different quantities of immunoglobulins were found similarly active in the reduction of endotoxin burden in rats and the infiltration of bacteria in mesenteric lymph nodes.72 Cytokines such as interleukin-1b (IL-1b), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-a, and interferon-g, which are present in colostrum,73 may stimulate production of neutralizing antibodies against hemagglutinin and neuramidase of the virus surface. All these observations indicate that colostrum activity belongs to a combination of protective factors that may allow an antiviral prophylaxis.
In many instances, flu starts from the intestinal tract, and protection in situ may be one of the advantages given by colostrum. Local activity in the gut may be the most important in immune factor. However, rotavirus antibody were shown to survive during the passage through the gut, which may also determine systemic immunity.74
Very-high-risk subjects, including end-stage coronary patients, patients with pulmonary hypertension, and those and severe cardiovascular problems, usually have a very severe prognosis in case of flu, which almost always is associated with severe bronchopulmonary complications that often lead to hospital admission.
. The prevention in these patients is very important, but the effects of vaccination in these individuals seem to be of very low efficacy owing to the very reduced immune response
Thus we conclude that the immune Protective nutrients in IMMU IZE TM appears to support Effective protection.
Colostrum: None reported
Saccharomyces boulardii: Is sensitive to concomitant anti-fungal agents, hot beverages & alcohol
Vitamin D: Sensitive to antacids.
Colostrum: None reported
Saccharomyces boulardii : Discontinue use for patients having yeast allergy.
Vitamin D: Over dose may cause nausea, vomiting poor appetite constipation & weakness.
* No reactions were documented in patients with milk allergy in the clinical data available.
Pregnancy / Nursing
Consult your health care practitioner before use. limited clinical data available.
Mechanism of Action
Immunize contains Immunoglobulins from Colostum, Saccharomyces boulardii & Vitamin D which helps to support the immune system & specific immunity to certain diseases.
Indications: Indicated for Immune support
Presentation: 30 Capsules in container / 3×10 blisters 1gm x10 sachets packed in a box.
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7. Taylor, H. P., and N. J. Dimmock. 1985. Mechanism of neutralization of influenza virus by secretory IgA is different from that of monomeric IgA or IgG. J. Exp. Med. 161:198-209 [Medline]
8. Buts JP, Bernasconi P, Vaerman JP, et al. Stimulation of secretory IgA and secretory component of immunoglobulins in small intestine of rats treated with Saccharomyces boulardii. Dig Dis Sci 1990;35:251-256[Medline].
9. Buts JP, De Keyser N.. Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on intestinal mucosa. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug; 51(8):1485-92. Epub 2006 Jul 13. [Medline]
10. Liaskovs’kyĭ TM, Rybalko SL, Pidhors’kyĭ VS, Kovalenko NK, Oleshchenko LT Effect of probiotic lactic acid bacteria strains on virus infection.Mikrobiol Z. 2007 Mar-Apr;69(2):55-63. [Medline]
11. Yamshchikov AV, Desai NS, Blumberg HM, Ziegler TR, Tangpricha V. Vitamin D for Treatment and Prevention of Infectious Diseases: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Endocr Pract. 2009 Jun 2:1-29. [Epub ahead of print] [Medline]
12.Cannell JJ, Vieth R, Umhau JC, Holick MF, Grant WB, Madronich S, Garland CF, Giovannucci E. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec;134(6):1129-40.
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Schauber J, Dorschner RA, Coda AB, Büchau AS, Liu PT, Kiken D, Helfrich YR, Kang S, Elalieh HZ, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Bikle DD, Modlin RL, Gallo RL: Injury Enhances TLR2 Function and Antimicrobial Peptide Expression Through a Vitamin D Dependent Mechanism.J Clin Invest 2007, 117:803-811. [Medline]
14.Kaushik S, Trivedi SS, Jain A, Bhattcharjee J. Unsuual changes in colostrum composition in lactating Indian women having medical complications during pregnancy- A pilot study. Indian J Clin Biochem 2002; 17 : 68-73..
15.Sabin, AB. Anti-poliomyelitic substance in milk from human beings and certain cows. Journal of Diseases of Children 80:866-870 (1950). Seminal study by Dr. Albert Sabin, inventor of the oral polio vaccine, in which he discovered antibodies against the polio virus in colostrum.
16. Palmer, EL, et al. Antiviral activity of colostrum and serum Immunoglobulins A and G. Journal of Medical Virology 5:123-129 (1980). Virus-specific IgA was discovered in colostrum, including anti-polio antibody.
17.Ogra, PL, et al. Colostrum-derived immunity and maternal-neonatal interaction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 409:82-95 (1983). Passive immunity to specific pathogens is passed from mother to infant via colostrum.
18. Brüssow, H., et al. Bovine milk immunoglobulins for passive immunity to infantile rotavirus gastroenteritis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 25(6):982-986 (1987). Protection against rotavirus, a dangerous pathogen which can cause serious, even fatal diarrhea in infants, can be passed orally through milk or colostrum safely and effectively.
19.Ebina, T, et al. Passive immunizations of suckling mice and infants with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus. Journal of Medical Virology 38:117-123 (1992). Another study that interferons and tumor necrosis factor product by murine resident peritoneal cells. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapie Experimentalis (Warsaw) 45(1):43-47 (1997). Colostrinin stimulates the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-beta (INF-β), both important cytokines in the inflammatory response.
20.Stephan, W, et al. Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry 28:19-23 (1990). An immunoglobulin preparation from pooled bovine colostrum was found to be very effective in treating severe diarrhea, such as often found in AIDS patients.
21. Korhonen, H, et al. Bovine milk antibodies for health. British Journal of Nutrition 84(Suppl.1):S135S146 (2000). Bovine colostrum provides safe, effective protection against many pathogens. This natural immune protection can be extended by hyperimmunizing cows against specific pathogens.
22. Solomons, NW. Modulation of the immune system and the response against pathogens with bovine colostrum concentrates. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56(Suppl.3):524-528 (2002). The ability of colostrum to protect infants against pathogens, specifically those which cause gastroenteritis and severe diarrhea, makes it an ideal, cheap, safe and effective means of protecting children in those parts of the world where medical assistance is lacking or substandard and could save thousands of lives each year.
23. Ho, PC, Lawton, JWM. Human colostral cells: Phagocytosis and killing of E. Coli and C. Albicans. Journal of Pediatrics 93(6):910 –915 (1978). Cells found in colostrum are able to ingest and kill both E. coli and Candida.
24.Majumdar, AS, et al. Protective properties of anti-cholera antibodies in human colostrum. Infection and Immunity 36:962-965 (1982). Colostrum was able to prevent infection with cholera. Colostrum samples from India, where cholera is common, had much higher levels of anti-cholera IgA than those from Sweden, where cholera is rare.
25.Funatogawa, K, et al. Use of immunoglobulin enriched bovine colostrum against oral challenge with enterohaemorrhagic Eschericia coli O157:H7 in mice. Microbiology and Immunology 46(11):761-766 (2002). Colostrum can prevent infection against food-borne pathogens by preventing them from binding to the intestinal lining.
26. Widiasih, DA, et al. Passive transfer of antibodies to Shiga toxin-producing Eschericia coli O26, O111 and O157 antigens in neonatal calves by feeding colostrum. Journal of Veterinary Medicine 66(2):213-215 (2004). Feeding colostrum to calves provided protection against Shiga toxin-producing E. Coli, a particularly deadly strain of E. coli.
27. Acosta-Altamirano, G, et al. Anti-amoebic properties of human colostrum. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 216B:1347-1352 (1987). In addition to its effectiveness against bacterial, viral and fungal infections, colostrum also provides protection against amoebic pathogens.
28. Akisu, C, et al. Effect of human milk and colostrum on Entamoeba histolyica. World Journal of Gastroenterology 10(5):741-742 (2004). Colostrum was found to provide protection against Entamoeba histolyica, the cause of amoebiasis, a serious, chronic illness characterized by dysentery, gastrointestinal ulceration and abscess formation and intestinal blockage in infants particularly.
29. Edde, L, et al. Lactoferrin protects neonatal rats from gut-related systemic infection. American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal Liver Physiology 281:G1140-G1150 (2001). Lactoferrin protected neonatal rats from E. coli infection in the intestines. Lactoferrin plus lysozyme was bactericidal against the E. coli.
30. Qiu, J, et al. Human milk lactoferrin inactivates two putative colonization factors expressed by Haemophilus influenzae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95:12641-12646 (1998). Lactoferrin prevents colonization of Haemophilus influenzae, the primary cause of otitis media and other respiratory infections in children, by inactivating two colonization factors expressed by the bacteria.
31. Hasegawa, K, et al. Inhibition with lactoferrin of in vitro infection with human herpes virus. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 47:73-85 (1994). Both human and bovine lactoferrin inhibit infection with human herpes simplex virus and human cytomegalovirus in cell cultures
32. Van der Strate, BW, et al. Antiviral activities of lactoferrin. Antiviral Research 52(3):225-239(2001). Lactoferrin is effective against both DNA and RNA viruses, including rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, herpes virus and HIV, both by blocking cellular receptors and by directly binding to the viruses.
33. Andersson, Y, et al. Lactoferrin is responsible for the fungistatic effect of human milk. Early Human Development 59:95-105 (2000). Lactoferrin, through its iron-binding ability, is very effective against fungal infections with Candida and other fungi.
34. Samaranayake, YH, et al. Antifungal effects of lysozyme and lactoferrin against genetically similar, sequential Candida albicans isolates from a human immunodeficiency virus-infected Southern Chinese cohort. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39(9):3296-3302 (2001). Lactoferrin plus lysozyme is very effective in killing nearly all oral strains of Candida, which is of particular importance to AIDS sufferers who are often unable to fight off Candida overgrowths, such as thrush .
35. Ellison, RT III, Giehl, TJ. Killing of gram-negative bacteria by lactoferrin and lysozyme. Journal of Clinical Investigation 88(4):1080-1091 (1991). Lactoferrin and lysozyme act together to kill gram- negative bacteria, such as Vibrio cholerae (cholera), Salmonella typhimurium (food poisoning) and Eschericia coli. The lactoferrin attaches to and destroys the cell wall of the bacteria, allowing the lysozyme to enter and lyse (burst) the organisms.
36. Harmsen, MC, et al. Antiviral effects of plasma and milk proteins: lactoferrin shows potent activity against both human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalovirus replication in vitro. Journal of Infectious Diseases172(2):380-388 (1995). Lactoferrin can protect against infection by HIV and human cytomegalovirus by blocking entrance into the body.
37. Berkhout, B, et al. Characterization of the anti-HIV effects of native lactoferrin and other milk proteins and protein-derived peptides. Antiviral Research 55(2):341-355 (2002). Bovine lactoferrin as well as peptides derived from lactoferrin blocks the entry process of HIV into cells.
38. Rump, JA, et al. Treatment of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum. Clinical Investigator 70:588-594 (1992). Immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum were very effective in treating chronic diarrhea in AIDS patients from a variety of causes. Colostral immunoglobulins are highly resistant to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.
39. Plettenberg, A, et al. A preparation from bovine colostrum in the treatment of HIV-positive patients with chronic diarrhea. Clinical Investigator 71(1):42-45 (1993). Another study which examined the use of immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum in the treatment of chronic diarrhea in AIDS patients. 40% of the study group experienced complete remission of symptoms and 24% partial remission.
40. Greenberg, PD, Cello, JP. Treatment of severe diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum with oral bovine immunoglobulin concentrate in patients with AIDS. Journal of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 13(4):348-354 (1996). Another study which looked at the treatment of cryptosporidiosis diarrhea in AIDS patients with an immunoglobulin concentrate from bovine colostrum. Best results were found using a powdered form of the concentrate rather than in capsules.
41. Korhonen, H, et al. Milk immunoglobulins and complement factors. British Journal of Nutrition 84(Suppl.1):S75-S80 (2000). Bovine colostrum contains three main classes of immunoglobulin IgG (IgG1 75% and IgG2), IgM and IgA, plus hemolytic and bactericidal complement. Complement is a complex group of proteins which act in concert with antibodies to inactivate and/or kill pathogens.
42. Gopal, PK, and Gill, HS. Oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in bovine milk and colostrum. British Journal of Nutrition 84(Suppl.1):S69-S74 (2000). Another way colostrum helps protect against infections is through the oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates it contains. These are complex sugars which compete for binding sites in the GI tract with pathogens.
43. Janusz, M, Lisowski, J. Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) – an immunomodulatory peptide from ovine colostrum. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 41:275-279 (1993). A unique, non-species specific polypeptide which plays an immunomodulatory role in the immune system. It can induce the differentiation of thymocytes into functional T-cells as well as increase the permeability of skin blood vessels. What makes it unique is that a second exposure to the polypeptide reverses the changes induced by first exposure.
44. Julius, MH, et al. A colostral protein that induces the growth and differentiation of resting B lymphocytes. Journal of Immunology 140:1366-1371 (1988). Colostrinin has also been shown to induce the growth and differentiation of resting B lymphocytes. T and B lymphocytes are the two main types of lymphocytes involved in the immune response.
45. Blach-Olszewska, Z, Janusz, M. Stimulatory effect of ovine colostrinine (a proline-rich polypeptide) on interferons and tumor necrosis factor product by murine resident peritoneal cells. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapie Experimentalis (Warsaw) 45(1):43-47 (1997). Colostrinin stimulates the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-beta (INF-β), both important cytokines in the inflammatory response.
46. Hagiwara, K, et al. Oral administration of IL-1 beta enhanced the proliferation of lymphocytes and the O(2)(- ) production of neutrophil in newborn calf. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 81(1-2):59-69 (2001) Interleukin-1β in colostrum stimulates the immune system by increasing the amount of peripheral white blood cells, especially monocytes
47. Bocci, V, et al. What is the role of cytokines in human colostrum? Journal of Biologic Regulatory and Homeostatic Agents 5(4):121-124 (1991). The cytokines present in colostrum, such as TNF-α, interferon-γ, IL-1 and IL-6, have an immunostimulatory effect. This could be significant for aged people or others with immunodeficiency.
48. Bessler, H., et al. Human colostrum stimulates cytokine production. Biology of the Neonate 69(6):376-382 (1996). Colostrum has also been shown to stimulate the production of certain cytokines, IL-1, IL-3 and IL-6, in peripheral white blood cells (monocytes).
49. Bogdan, C, Nathan, C. Modulation of macrophage function by transforming growth factor beta, interleukin- 4, and interleukin-10. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 685:713-739 (1993). Certain cytokines found in colostrum, TGF-β, IL-4 and IL-10, have a modulatory effect on macrophages, either stimulating or deactivating them as conditions dictate.
50. Gahr, M, et al. Influence of lactoferrin on the function of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 49(5):427-433 (1991). White blood cells (polymorphonuclear leucocytes) exposed to lactoferrin from bovine colostrum exhibit increased motility and produce more superoxide (a powerful antioxidant).
51.Sirota, L, et al. Effect of human colostrum on interleukin-2 production and natural killer cell activity. Archive of Diseases in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition 72(3):F99-102 (1995). Colostrum stimulates or inhibits the production of IL-2 depending on its concentration. It also inhibits the activity of natural killer cells, but the production of IL-2 reverses this effect. This is thought to be another way that colostrum modulates the immune system response.
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